The presence of shock waves, along with the compressibility effects of high-flow velocity see Reynolds number fluids, is the central difference between the supersonic and subsonic aerodynamics regimes.
In aerodynamics, hypersonic speeds are speeds that are highly supersonic. In the s, the term generally came to refer to speeds of Mach 5 5 times the speed of sound and above. The hypersonic regime is a subset of the supersonic regime. Hypersonic flow is characterized by high temperature flow behind a shock wave, viscous interaction, and chemical dissociation of gas. The incompressible and compressible flow regimes produce many associated phenomena, such as boundary layers and turbulence. The concept of a boundary layer is important in many problems in aerodynamics.
The viscosity and fluid friction in the air is approximated as being significant only in this thin layer. This assumption makes the description of such aerodynamics much more tractable mathematically. In aerodynamics, turbulence is characterized by chaotic property changes in the flow. These include low momentum diffusion, high momentum convection, and rapid variation of pressure and flow velocity in space and time. Flow that is not turbulent is called laminar flow. Aerodynamics is a significant factor in vehicle design , including automobiles , and in the prediction of forces and moments acting on sailing vessels.
It is used in the design of mechanical components such as hard drive heads. Structural engineers resort to aerodynamics, and particularly aeroelasticity , when calculating wind loads in the design of large buildings, bridges , and wind turbines. Urban aerodynamics are studied by town planners and designers seeking to improve amenity in outdoor spaces, or in creating urban microclimates to reduce the effects of urban pollution. The field of environmental aerodynamics describes ways in which atmospheric circulation and flight mechanics affect ecosystems. Aerodynamic equations are used in numerical weather prediction.
Sports in which aerodynamics are of crucial importance include soccer , cricket and golf, in which control over the trajectory of ball movement is sought by expert players who can, for instance, exploit the " Magnus effect " and other environmental conditions to advantage. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Aerodynamic disambiguation. Main article: History of aerodynamics. Further information: incompressible flow. Main article: Compressible flow. Main article: Transonic. Main article: Supersonic. Main article: Hypersonic. Potential flow theory. Boundary layer flow theory. Turbulent wake analysis.
Main article: Boundary layer. Main article: Turbulence. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Further information: Automotive aerodynamics. Aviation: Reaching for the Sky. The Oliver Press, Inc. The Metamorphoses. Signet Classics. Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. Archived from the original on 20 September Sir George Cayley, born in , is sometimes called the Father of Aviation. A pioneer in his field, he was the first to identify the four aerodynamic forces of flight — weight, lift, drag, and thrust and their relationship. He was also the first to build a successful human-carrying glider.
Cayley described many of the concepts and elements of the modern airplane and was the first to understand and explain in engineering terms the concepts of lift and thrust. Via NASA. Raw text. Retrieved: 30 May Essai d'une nouvelle theorie de la resistance des fluides.
Philosophical Magazine. Low-speed aerodynamics: From wing theory to panel methods.
McGraw-Hill series in aeronautical and aerospace engineering. New York: McGraw-Hill. General aerodynamics Anderson, John D. Fundamentals of Aerodynamics 4th ed. Bertin, J.
Aerodynamic Influence Coefficients for Delta Wings in Steady Supersonic Flow | Emerald Insight
Aerodynamics for Engineers 4th ed. Prentice Hall.
Smith, Hubert C. Illustrated Guide to Aerodynamics 2nd ed. Craig, Gale Introduction to Aerodynamics. Regenerative Press. Subsonic aerodynamics Katz, Joseph; Plotkin, Allen Low-Speed Aerodynamics 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press. Obert, Ed Aerodynamic Design of Transport Aircraft.
What is a Shock Wave?
Delft; About practical aerodynamics in industry and the effects on design of aircraft. Transonic aerodynamics Moulden, Trevor H. Fundamentals of Transonic Flow. Krieger Publishing Company.
What is a Shock Wave?
Cole, Julian D; Cook, L. Pamela Transonic Aerodynamics. Supersonic aerodynamics Ferri, Antonio Elements of Aerodynamics of Supersonic Flows Phoenix ed. Dover Publications. Shapiro, Ascher H. Ronald Press. Anderson, John D. Modern Compressible Flow. Liepmann, H. Elements of Gasdynamics. Mathematical Theory of Compressible Fluid Flow. Hodge, B. Hypersonic aerodynamics Anderson, John D. Hypersonic and High Temperature Gas Dynamics 2nd ed. Hayes, Wallace D. Hypersonic Inviscid Flow. History of aerodynamics Chanute, Octave Progress in Flying Machines.
Aerodynamics related to engineering Ground vehicles Katz, Joseph Race Car Aerodynamics: Designing for Speed. Bentley Publishers. Barnard, R. Road Vehicle Aerodynamic Design 2nd ed. Mechaero Publishing.
Related Wing Theory in Supersonic Flow
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