Highrates of literacy and the establishment of the first two print shopsin the colonies and enabled Puritans to forge a pow-erful regional identity.
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New England surpassed all other Britishregions in the development of a historical consciousness and a collective, if exclusive, identity. Seventeenth-century writersproduced the first Puritan-centered histories of New England,launching a religion-driven deluge of printed words that hasshaped how we have come to understand the regions storiedcolonial past. The famous image of the city upon the hill, then, is a helpfulreminder of Puritanisms weighty influence on New England and. But Winthrops words have often been used to explain howthe founding of Puritan New England launched an Americansense of mission.
In this familiar vein, their city upon the hillserved as a moral beacon to the world. This book moves beyondsuch customary but often limited images of early New Englandto examine the regions founding and early history in a colonialcontext rather than as a precursor to later historical develop-ments like the rise of the achievement of American indepen-dence or the American sense of mission abroad.
Colonial history of the United States
Common activities and monumental events in colonial NewEngland took place in a heavily transatlantic and British context. As they made strides toward creating a distinctive regional cul-ture, New Englands Puritan founders remained above all trans-planted Englishmen and -women with strong bonds to theirmother country. The very name of the region signaled a hope forcultural continuity with the homeland. Many original settlers re-turned to Britain during the first decades of settlement, disap-pointed that the region did not resemble a new England or elsedrawn home by the temporary triumph of Puritan forces underOliver Cromwell at midcentury.
In the eighteenth century, colo-nial New Englanders relied on new sources of British identityand pride. It was unusual for an imperial power to have limits onthe monarchy and constitutional protections for the civil and re-ligious rights of its citizens both at home and in its colonies, asEngland did; British Protestants on both sides of the Atlantic didenjoy freedom of worship. For such reasons, British patriotismswept through eighteenth-century colonial America. New En-glands confrontations with French political and religious abso-lutism in nearby Canada inflamed the regions pride in its Britishheritage.
In other words, colonial New England was not an insularAmerican city upon a hill, either at the time of its founding or inthe course of its colonial development. Even as New Englandersadapted their English heritage to New World circumstances, theyinhabited a transatlantic realm whose religious movements, com-mercial exchanges, and imperial demands shaped regional life.
BY FRANCIS PARKMAN
Indeed, colonial New England prospered into British Americaspreeminent mercantile region, a maritime nation within theimperial domain. New England merchants quickly saw or created.
Rather than iso-lating New England from the outside world, the Atlantic Oceanserved as a watery frontier, a highway of commercial and culturalencounter and exchange. The ocean linked New Englanders notonly to English people in other colonies and in the homeland butto racial and religious strangers throughout the Atlantic world. Strangers to Puritanism participated in the creation of colo-nial New England.
In Puritan usage, stranger might identify some-one who was non-English, non-Christian, non-Protestant, ornonwhite. Most commonly, stranger referred to all non-Puritan in-habitants, whether white, black, or Native American. The imageof the city upon the hill has become historical shorthand for Puritan New England, an image that tends to distill the chroni-cle of the Colonial Era into an exclusively Puritan historicaldramathe story of pious saints.
Yet within and beyond thePuritan Bible commonwealths of Massachusetts and Connecti-cut, strangers fashioned their own subcommunities. From the re-gions origins to the end of the Colonial Era, profane or nomi-nally Protestant white settlers posed ongoing problems to piousNew Englanders. In spite of disease and bloody early encounterswith English colonists, Native people were not erased from theregional landscape.
Whether as military allies, bound laborers, orsubjects for religious conversion, Natives endured as participantsin New England colonial life. By the mid-eighteenth century,New England merchants came to dominate the American phaseof the Atlantic slave trade. As a consequence, the regions lead-ing seaports hosted large, vital African-American communities. Of course, unlike other parts of British America, racial andcultural diversity altered rather than transformed colonial NewEngland.
From its founding through the eighteenth century,New England persisted as the most Anglo region of BritishAmerica. In fact, English origins rather than Puritan piety de-fined the most inclusive category of identity in colonial New En-gland.
Still, the region was far from the homogeneous Angloworld that the dominant images of Pilgrims, Puritans, and Yan-kees suggest. This book examines New England as a distinctivesection of British North America, assessing the scope of Puri-tanisms influence in the region and exploring colonial New En-glands history beyond its overemphasized image as the city uponthe hill. New approaches to the study of Native American lifehave revealed its complexity before and after contact with Euro-peans.
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Ethnohistory has made the study of Native ways morecultural and anthropological. Drawing on archaeological evi-dence and European reports, historians now examine Native cul-ture in its own context. Ethnohistorians also focus on changes inNative material artifacts, trade, and warfare as a result of contactwith European explorers and settlers. At the same time, the emer-gence of environmental history has encouraged historians tostudy Native ecological practices and to document the major al-terations of the New World landscape that preceded the arrivalof European settlers. Ethnohistory and environmental history have helped trans-form our view of Native Americans.
Consider New England. Weno longer see its Natives as members of wandering warrior soci-eties or as unchanging, seemingly natural inhabitants of ahowling wilderness. Natives had their own history and did notenter the story of New England only as a consequence of theirencountersometimes violentwith English colonists. Yet,through these encounters, Natives participated in the making ofearly New England. Colonists founded and developed a newEngland, an English cultural region. They did so only with cru-cial assistance from Native people.
Colonists erected towns onsites where land had been cleared by agricultural tribes. Nativefood and farming practices sustained early settlers. Their trade. The English colonists also relied heavily on Indian mil-itary allies, guides, and mapmakers. Native Americans did notsimply present an obstacle to New Englands settlement; theyalso proved essential to the regions colonization and survival.
We do not have precise figures on the size of New EnglandsNative population before contact and colonization in the seven-teenth century introduced European diseases that devastated theregions aboriginal people. Estimates of Native population rangewidely, from 75, to over , In spite of these epidemics,the tribes were a major presence in New England up to the out-break of King Philips War In , Native Americansstill constituted nearly one quarter of the regions approximately68, inhabitants.
The Puritan elect—but also Natives, African slaves, and non-Puritan white settlers—became active participants in the creation of colonial New England. Conforti discusses how these subcommunities of white, red, and black strangers to Protestant piety retained their own cultures, coexisted, and even thrived within and beyond the domains of Puritan settlement, creating tensions and pressure points in the later development of early America. Joseph A. Conforti , Professor Joseph A Conforti. Essay on Sources.
Related Saints and Strangers: New England in British North America (Regional Perspectives on Early America)
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