thermodynamics | Laws, Definition, & Equations | funmiwordpig.tk
Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Fundamental concepts Thermodynamic states Thermodynamic equilibrium Temperature Work and energy Total internal energy The first law of thermodynamics Heat engines Isothermal and adiabatic processes The second law of thermodynamics Entropy Entropy and efficiency limits Entropy and heat death Entropy and the arrow of time Open systems Thermodynamic potentials Gibbs free energy and chemical reactions Enthalpy and the heat of reaction Thermodynamic properties and relations Work of expansion and contraction Equations of state Heat capacity and specific heat Heat capacity and internal energy Entropy as an exact differential The Clausius-Clapeyron equation Concluding remarks.
Written By: Gordon W.
The most important laws of thermodynamics are:. The zeroth law of thermodynamics. When two systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third system, the first two systems are in thermal equilibrium with each other.
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The first law of thermodynamics, or the law of conservation of energy. The second law of thermodynamics. Heat does not flow spontaneously from a colder region to a hotter region, or, equivalently, heat at a given temperature cannot be converted entirely into work. Consequently, the entropy of a closed system, or heat energy per unit temperature, increases over time toward some maximum value. Thus, all closed systems tend toward an equilibrium state in which entropy is at a maximum and no energy is available to do useful work. The third law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics does not describe the microscopic constituents of matter, and its laws can be derived from statistical mechanics.
First law of Thermodynamics: A change in the internal energy of a closed thermodynamic system is equal to the difference between the heat supplied to the system and the amount of work done by the system on its surroundings. A system is any object or set of objects we want to consider.
There are several types of systems:. The first law asserts the existence of a state variable for a system, the internal energy, and tells how it changes in thermodynamic processes. The law allows a given internal energy of a system to be reached by any combination of heat and work. It is important that internal energy is a variable of state of the system whereas heat and work are variables that describe processes or changes of the state of systems. The first law observes that the internal energy of an isolated system obeys the principle of conservation of energy, which states that energy can be transformed changed from one form to another , but cannot be created or destroyed.
Bioprofe First principle of thermodynamics theory Where U is the internal energy of the system isolated , Q is the amount of heat supplied to the system and W is the work done by the system. From this follows, using the Gibbs-Duhem relation ,.
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Thus the enthalpy is the heat release of a quasistatic reaction at constant pressure , just like the energy is the heat release when the volume is held constant. Because many reactions run at constant pressure and do not exchange particles with the environment, this is very useful for calculating heat exchange.
For the Gibbs free energy we transform twice for a system coupled to a thermostat and pressurestat i. From this and the Gibbs-Duhem relation follows.
This kind of equation for the chemical potential can also hold approximately in dilute solutions. H-bonding in an aqueous sugar solution.
In that case we can correct the chemical potential:. Finally we note the relation between the temperature derivatives of chemical potential and free energy, which yield the concentration dependence of the entropy:.
As concentration or pressure increases , and particles become more confined, entropy decreases. The Massieu functions are the Legendre transforms of the entropy. The Massieu functions are closely related to the partition functions of statistical mechanics.
Related Principles of General Thermodynamics
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