But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned.
But neither the United States nor any state shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
John A. Bingham of Ohio , Sen. Jacob Howard of Michigan , Rep. Henry Deming of Connecticut , Sen. Benjamin G. Brown of Missouri , and Rep.
The Bill of Rights to the U.S. Constitution
Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania. The Congressional Joint Resolution proposing the amendment was submitted to the states for ratification on June 16, On July 28, , having been ratified by the requisite number of states, it entered into force.
However, its attempt to guarantee civil rights was circumvented for many decades by the post-Reconstruction-era black codes , Jim Crow laws , and the U. Ferguson Fourteenth Amendment.
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Fourteenth Amendment | Definition, Significance, & Facts | funmiwordpig.tk
Submit Feedback. Fourteenth Amendment to the U. Constitution -- Ratified The amendment, which overrode the Dred Scott decision of , made all people born or naturalized in the United States citizens of the country. Significantly, it also placed three new limitations on state power: "No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges and immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Citizenship Defined All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside.
Applying the Bill of Rights to state governments
No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Section 2. Apportioning Representatives Representatives shall be apportioned among the several states according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state [excluding Indians not taxed].
But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officer of a state, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the [male] inhabitants of such state, [being twenty-one years of age] and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such [male] citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens [twenty-one years of age] in such state.
Related No State Shall Abridge: The Fourteenth Amendment and the Bill of Rights
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