These are just some examples to show that research which has an academic impact is also taken back to the Luxembourg community. Culture contact: Do we see it as opportunity or threat? December If there is one country in the world that can call itself multicultural, it must be Luxembourg.
The authors then address the various situational influences on ethnic identity, reinforcing our understanding of identity as a variable and continuing process informed by our unique life experiences. The authors recognize the construction and reconstruction of race in the course of our actions rather than as something we are or possess.
Accordingly, they identify the acts of remembering, regenerating, and reclaiming, particularly through the medium of storytelling, as something that indigenous peoples do, not only as a critical component of the process of healing wounds of history, but also in continuing to assert their sovereignty and self-determination, engendering a mode of survival.
Through a historic review of whiteness, Lisa B. Whereas for many, racial and ethnic identity is defined by an experience of exclusion, contrarily, whiteness in the United States is a story of inclusion, an evolving and expanding definition that transformed over time as was needed to maintain social control by the empowered elite.
In this chapter, we learn that whiteness is not removed from the experience of race but is rather inherently defined by it. Spanierman discusses several models of White identity development, each articulating an interdependent relationship between stages of identity development and racist or nonracist attitudes. She chronicles a process in which individuals move first from ignorance to awareness and then to acceptance of racist structures in U.
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The author importantly reminds us that, as with any other group, whiteness is not a monolithic experience but differs across gender, sexual orientation, and social class divides. The rapidly rising number of individuals who self-identify as multiracial is pointed to by many as evidence of improved tolerance for mixing among groups. Buchanan illustrate how multiracial individuals themselves have often occupied a symbolic position in U. Nonetheless, these individuals must still navigate the complex hierarchy of social and economic status afforded to different racial groups.
The authors stress the importance of ecological and environmental factors in multicultural identity development, offering a critical lesson on the importance of external validation to our internal processes and on how our neighborhoods and communities affect our perceptions of self. The authors articulate that what it means to be American has changed and continues to change over time, is deeply rooted in our history, and varies depending on the age and generation of the individual. They point out the inconsistencies of an American ideology that values civic participation and freedom but is built on biased and exclusionary rules for belonging and ask us to consider what change is needed to truly become a pluralistic society.
The world of multiculturalism is vast and the diversity of experience seemingly infinite. As such, it is important to acknowledge some of the important areas where additional research and a more in-depth discussion could contribute to and complement this work. The authors consider the experience of identity development within the context of the United States.
Although some of the chapters, particularly regarding Asian American identity and that of citizen children of undocumented parents, incorporate a lens that considers identity development as influenced by foreign policy, immigration law, and individual and familial experiences that transcend borders, the book overall does not deliberately acknowledge the role of internationalism.
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For example, many immigrants in the United States and their children maintain strong ties with their families and communities in their country of origin. These relationships are evident in both the social—cultural practices of these groups as well as their financial habits, for example, the billions of dollars U. In addition, as discussed by Miller and Buchanan in chapter 7, a growing number of individuals develop blended identities that represent bicultural, multicultural, and international family arrangements.
For example, in , the Australian Human Rights Commission finalised complaints about racial discrimination. Less than 3 per cent of finalised complaints in end up in court.
The majority of complaints under the Act are successfully conciliated in , 67 per cent of complaints where there was a conciliation. As for the constitutionality of section 18C — to be more precise, the constitutionality of Part IIA of the Act — the body of case law to date suggests the law is settled on the issue. Understanding how section 18C works requires attention to section 18D of the Act, which explicitly protects freedom of speech.
This section protects anything that is done reasonably and in good faith that is artistic work or fair reporting and comment on matters of public interest. Among many critics of the Act, and among those calling for its review, there is a puzzling ignorance of this section of the legislation. The courts have interpreted this provision broadly. There have been numerous instances where acts causing racial offence have been found to enjoy the exemption of section 18D. Yagan was a Noongar warrior shot dead in and whose preserved head was displayed in a British museum.
Despite the racial offence taken by Noongar Aboriginal communities in Western Australia, the cartoons in the West Australian newspaper were found by the Federal Court to have enjoyed the protection of section 18D, being deemed to constitute fair comment. If we are to endorse Australian multiculturalism, we should give it expression through the law.
The law acts, among other things, to express our values as a society. Civility and respect are, as I noted earlier, values that transcend political divides. Again, we see in Australian multiculturalism and the Racial Discrimination Act , a spirit that could be described as conservative.
I would like to conclude by focusing attention on a third, and most urgent, challenge. As illustrated by a number of examples during the past two years, there are elements present in our society intent on pursuing violent extremism, using religious justifications. These elements have no place in Australian multiculturalism. We must take care, however, not to judge entire communities by the actions of an extremist few; we must not allow stereotypes and prejudices to take hold.
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Last year, I conducted around the country consultations with communities about their experience of racism. It was commonly reported by representatives of Muslim and Arab communities that public debates about terrorism were spilling over into disharmony within communities. This warrants our attention. We must be prepared to speak out against prejudice where it exists.
Not speaking out can make it easier for extremists to seduce alienated youths with their messages of violence. Indeed, if we are to expect Muslim communities to repudiate extremism perpetrated in the name of Islam, our society must be prepared to repudiate extremism that targets Muslim communities. It has been concerning to see present in many anti-Muslim protest rallies agitators aligned with far-right-wing nationalist organisations. Such groups may not confine their energies to one community. During the past two years, for example, we have seen numerous instances of vile anti-Semitic bigotry, which appear to be linked with far-right organised groups.
The alarming rise of far-right politics in the US and Europe further highlights how liberal tolerance is being challenged by extreme nationalism. There are, then, numerous challenges for Australian multiculturalism. It is a reminder that while it has been a success, we cannot be complacent. But, as I said at the outset, civil debate about multiculturalism is always to be welcomed.
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I thank the Sydney Institute for facilitating such a debate this evening. Eliot, C. Grolier Enterprise Corp, Connecticut, p Search Search search. Race Discrimination. Wednesday 9 March, The criteria of success Debates about multiculturalism often track events overseas. Yet, in one respect, Australian multiculturalism has an emphatic conservative spirit.
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